Mangosteen Xanthones Research Studies

Scientific research studies on the xanthones in Mangosteen showed that there are more than 40 of these powerful natural plant compounds in this exotic Asian fruit.

The number of Mangosteen xanthone research studies began to grow in the 1970's. Continuing into the 1980s, even more were conducted and published in a number of scientific journals.

From the early 2000's and by the time the first product based on the whole fruit puree of Mangosteen was launched in the U.S. in 2002, studies on these natural plant compounds continued at an even faster pace.

Xanthones have been proven to possess medicinal properties that help sustain the immune system, support microbiological balance and positive mental health, and improve joint flexibility.

Powerful Antioxidants

The body produces antioxidants to help balance free radicals, but it often is overwhelmed and cannot, on its own, repair the damage done by free radicals.

Mangosteen's xanthones help absorb free radicals and stop cellular damage that leads to many types of diseases.

The whole Mangosteen fruit contains these powerful antioxidants, but most are found in the rind or skin of this fruit. Here are some of the xanthones that have been the subject of studies done by Mangosteen xanthone researchers:

  • alpha-mangostin
  • gamma-mangostin
  • mangostin
  • garcinone E
  • beta-mangostin
  • BR-xanthone B
  • BR-xanthone A
  • garcinone
  • garcinone B
  • garcinone C
  • garcinone D
  • gartanin
  • maclurin
  • mangostanol

Alpha-mangostin and Gamma-mangostin

Among the 40+ xanthones found in the whole Mangosteen fruit, alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin have been the subject of many studies by researchers around the world. These two xanthones were shown to be very effective as anti-inflammatory agents.

One research study showed that they were even more potent than several anti-inflammatory medications used for arthritis and gout.

These Mangosteen xanthones help stop inflammation by inhibiting the body's production of the COX-2 enzyme and blocking the process that leads to inflammation. And they do this without affecting the blood's clotting mechanism or damaging the stomach lining and causing ulcers as most anti-inflammatory medications do.

One study, in fact, showed that they even helped heal stomach ulcers.

Scientists demonstrated that alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin proved to be stronger antioxidants than others known for their antioxidant properties.

Alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative from the Mangosteen, was found by Japanese scientists to have effective chemo-preventive effects in their short-term colon carcinogenesis bio-assay system. Their findings suggest that longer exposure to alpha-mangostin may suppress the development of tumors.

Gamma-mangostin was shown to have more potent antioxidant activity than even vitamin E, one of the most potent antioxidants.

Researchers also demonstrated gamma-mangostin's potent anti-inflammatory effects on the brain's structural cells and suggested that it has the potential in helping with inflammatory conditions of the brain (for example, Alzheimer's disease). They proposed that gamma-mangostin will be a useful lead compound for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs.

Other Xanthones in Mangosteen

Scientists found that alpha-mangostin, beta-mangostin and garcinone B were strong inhibitors of mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Researchers investigating the effects of the Mangosteen xanthones on the HIV-1 virus found that mangostin and gamma-mangostin showed the ability to inhibit the activity of the HIV-1 virus that causes AIDS.

Mangostin was also found to have the ability to protect the LDL from oxidative damage by free radicals. This helps control and lower "bad cholesterol" (LDL) levels and so assist in preventing the clogging of arteries that leads to heart disease.

Other Properties of Xanthones

Xanthones also have cancer-fighting properties. In one study, a Xanthone from the Mangosteen, Garcinone E, was found to be more effective than chemotherapy agents flouraurcil, cisplatin, vincristine, methotrexate and mitoxantrone in killing lung, stomach and liver cancer cells.

They have the ability to stop histamines that often cause inflammation in people with allergies.

Mangosteen's xanthones also were proven to have antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antiviral properties. Moreover, they do not cause bacterial resistance as antibiotic drugs do, which allows for the effective use of antibiotics when needed in more urgent situations.

See also:

Mangosteen Xanthones Research: Alpha-Mangostin
These natural compounds possess healing properties that help sustain the immune system, support microbiological balance, promote positive mental health, and improve joint flexibility.

Mangosteen Xanthones Research: Gamma-Mangostin
Why does gamma-mangostin occupy a very special place in Mangosteen's arsenal of natural healing compounds? Scientists provide the answer.

Xanthones' Kins: Mangosteen's Other Healing Agents
In addition to Xanthones, there other natural chemical compounds in Mangosteen. What are these other natural healing compounds?